Process Of Crystalline Silicon - Changing Light To Electricity


Silicon is the second most plentiful material in the Earth's crust apart from oxygen. Silicon used in solar cell creation is enhanced to a virtually 100% purity. In the photovoltaic process solar cells are used to turn light into electrical energy. Solar cells consist of semiconductor substances like: silicon, gallium, cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide. Just about the most typical substances in solar cells is crystalline silicon.

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In the case of crystalline silicon solar cells, significantly pure silicon with high crystal quality is necessary to make powerful usable solar cells. In the outer shell of a silicon atom it is made up of 4 bonding electrons. To form a stable electron configuration, in the crystal lattice two electrons of nearby atoms from an electron pair bond. By creating a sturdy bond with 4 neighboring electrons silicon achieves its noble gas arrangement with 8 out electrons. This electron bond could be broken by light or heat, which allows the electron to move liberally and as a result it leaves a hole in the crystal lattice. This is generally known as intrinsic conductivity on crystalline silicon.

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Intrinsic conductivity will never be utilized to produce electrical power. The crystalline silicon may only generate electrical power when impurities (called doping atoms) are introduced into the crystal lattice. These atoms have one electron more (phosphorous) or perhaps one electron less (boron) than crystalline silicon in their external shell. The phosphorous doping technique is known as negative doping (n-doping) and the boron doping technique is known as positive doping (p-doping).

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With regards to n-doping the electron can move about openly in the crystal subsequently it can transport electrical charge. Alternatively p-doping has a missing bonding electron for every bonding born atom in the crystal lattice. This lets electrons from crystalline silicon atoms to fill the hole due to the missing bonding electron, producing a new hole elsewhere. The conduction method dependent on these doping atoms is termed impurity conduction.

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If both the p and n-doped semiconductor layers are brought together a p-n junction is built. This junction permits surplus electrons from the n-semiconductor to diffuse into the p-semiconductor layer, thus creating an area generally known as the space charge region. Positively charged doping atoms stays in the n-region of the transition and negatively charged doping atoms sits in the p-region of the transition area. An electrical field is then created that is in contrast to the motion of the charge carriers, with the outcome that diffusion does not continue indefinitely by means of the crystalline silicon. This p-n semiconductor is what is known as a solar cell. Once the solar cell is subjected to light photons are taken in by the electrons. This contribution of energy breaks electron bonds.

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The distributed electrons are pulled through the electrical field into the n-region. The holes that are formed migrate in the opposing direction, into the p-region. This process is what is referred to as the photovoltaic effect - transforming light into electricity through crystalline silicon.

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